Condiments and seasonings
Mustard is obtained from the seeds of mustard, which belongs to the family
crucifers. There are three types of mustard: black, white (yellow) and
Russian (bluish) or sareptana. We have extended sareptana mustard,
which is cultivated mainly in the Volga region, near the city
Krasnoarmeisk (formerly of Sarepta), as well as in the Stavropol region and Kazakhstan.
The composition of mustard seeds are nitrogenous substances, essential oils, fat, fiber,
pentosans and pectin. An important part of black and mustard sareptana
a glucoside sinigrin (potassium miranovokisly), and white - sinalbin. At
treatment of mustard with warm water, these glucosides in the presence of the enzyme mirozina
break down into sugar, salt and sour sernokalievuyu allyl mustard oil,
which makes a sharp taste and smell of mustard, causing even slezotochenie
at a distance.
Mustard is a valuable oilseed crop, as its seeds contain
an average of 35% fat. To obtain mustard oil seeds released from membranes
and subjected to hot pressing. The remaining cake grind, get
mustard powder, from which it is prepared mustard in industry
and directly to the catering.
Mustard powder can be the first and second grades. Mustard first grade
features a large fat content and a lighter color of the powder. Humidity
mustard of both the first and second grade should noxtexceed 10%. Powder
wrapped in paper package (packages weighing 50-100 g) and in bulk in boxes of 25 kg
or in bags of 50 kg. Mustard powder should be stored in a dry place.
In cooking, mustard is used after pre-treatment. Of the many
known methods of cooking, we focus only on one very
circulated. Mustard powder triturated, pour boiling water and
infused for 12-24 hours. to remove the bitterness, then the water is drained,
to improve the taste, add vinegar, salt, sugar, and to alleviate -
vegetable oil. The mixture is stirred well until a homogeneous mass,
then shift the mustard in a glass bowl and cover tightly.
Properly prepared mustard for a long time does not lose its strength and flavor at
storing it in a cool dark place in tightly closed containers. Under the influence
light and heat in the mustard begins to occur the chemical processes
by which it acquires an unpleasant odor and dark. This mustard
becomes unfit for consumption.
There are several formulations of mustard, here are the most common:
1) for the bitter mustard (in g): 100 mustard powder, sugar 10, vegetable
oil 10, 44 vinegar, salt, 2;
2) for the aromatic mustard (in g): 100 mustard powder, cinnamon, 6 cloves, 6
vinegar 44 salt 2.
Prepared mustard is used as a seasoning for dishes and served to the consumer
on the table along with salt, pepper and vinegar. In addition, prepared mustard
used in the manufacture of mayonnaise, mustard sauce, herring and
salad dressings, etc.
Mustard is laid in the sauce after its manufacture, as by boiling
it loses its inherent sharpness. Mustard gives the dish a spicy taste, causes
increased secretion of gastric juice and saliva, and thereby improves digestion.
When cooking sauces, mustards bookmarks rate ranges from 25
up to 120 grams per liter.