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DRYING POTATOES

DRYING POTATOES (ГОСТ 6017—51) Most suitable for drying high-yielding varieties of table potatoes (Lorch, Epron, Majestic, Smyslovsky, bark-Neva, Oktyabrenok, Courier berlihingen, etc.) that have tubers are large or medium-sized round or oblong correct form, without build-up and not damaged by pests, wireworm and other tubers must have thin skin, small number of shallow eyes and the flesh white or yellowish. Potatoes, going for a vegetable-drying industry, should satisfy the requirements of GOST 6014-51. When drying potatoes, blanched in sliced, technological operations are performed in the following sequence: sorted for quality; calibration for small, medium and large; washing; treatment (in centrifuges or manually); dochistka hand (keep the peeled potatoes in water, so it is not darkened); cutting of large and medium potato noodles and small mugs; rinsing in water; blanching (within 3-5 minutes. in water or steam); cooling in water; flooring on screen (immediately after washing and cooling water); drying. When drying the potato grading and sizing of raw materials - the most important operations to ensure that the finished 'product quality and minimum costs of raw materials per ton of finished product. The calibration of the potato produced by the calibration machine drum type sotryasatelnyh wire sieves with mesh sizes for tables, slides, or manually. Wash the potatoes in a washing machine fxistor drum type. In small enterprises potatoes are washed in tubs with water (preferably with running). After washing potatoes centrifuge or kornechistkah, in which raw materials downloaded periodically equal portions. When peeling potatoes in a centrifuge must be submitted continuous stream of water. Potatoes in a centrifuge can be cleaned only calibrated by size. When cleaning in different-sized centrifuges Potato waste will increase, and hence the expenditure raw material per ton of finished product will also increase. After peeling potatoes in centrifuges produce dochistku tubers manually remove the remnants of the skin and eyes, and dark spots, etc. At the same time keep the peeled potatoes in water, but no more than 2 hours. Then the tubers are allowed to cut. Cut potatoes in kornerezkah as columns or noodles as thick as 5-7 mm and a width of 3-5 mm and thin circles. Hopper kornerezki must be loaded at all times at half its capacity. Thanks to this machine's performance increases and the amount of stuff - chips - is reduced. Sliced potatoes were washed in cold water. In this case, washed starch which must be periodically collected and dried. After cutting and washing the potatoes are blanching, for which metal mesh with potatoes immersed in boiling water. You can blanch it and steam at a temperature not lower than 95 ° for 3-5 minutes, depending the size of the bars and the temperature. During blanching at 90 ° C and above destroys the enzymes, including tyrosinase. Therefore, the blanched potatoes to darken. If the potatoes until blanching was washed badly, starch, located on the surface of the pieces, with blanching kleysterizuetsya, and drying of the potato will be longer. In addition, the appearance of the finished product will be unattractive. Potatoes should blanch in small portions to water, after immersion in her potatoes, quick (1-2 minutes) to boil. It is best to blanch the potatoes in pots made of stainless steel, aluminum or, finally, in wooden tubs, covered with bakelite lacquer and fitted with stainless steel tubing. When enjoyment of such pots in the water do not get metals - copper and iron, that promote oxidation of vitamin C. Blanching the potato steam produced in special Blancher continuous or intermittent operation or in an autoclave under pressure. When blanching potato water and steam must strive to to potatoes quickly warmed to a temperature of 80 °. Interval temperatures ranging from 30 to 55 ° is particularly dangerous, since such temperature activity of oxidative enzymes is very high and so potato to darken. Vitamin C is rapidly oxidized at the same time. After blanching the potatoes immediately cooled in cold water (Immersion in the same grid or running water from a hose) to temperature no higher than 30 °. Cooling potatoes only to 45-50 ° unacceptable, since such potatoes are digested and dark. The latter facilitated by the following iron and copper, falling into the potatoes from the water. These metals, as and enzymes that act more vigorously at higher temperatures. Then the potato plank on screens and dried in the dryer. Sieves potatoes in the cabinet and rotary dryers put the bottom and then gradually rearrange them up, ie, drying is carried out parallel to the movement of warm air coming from the radiator. Practiced as drying potatoes combined: first, for forward flow, and then by a countercurrent. In this case, the sieve with Blanched potatoes put on the bottom, and then through 20-30 minutes to rearrange the top of the apparatus, where as the drying of the product is moved downwards. Products discharged from that part of the apparatus, which is located closer downwards. Drying of potato in xagrit: the first three steps are the same as and dried potatoes sliced, and further: boiling potatoes whole until tender form, avoiding cooking; peeling potatoes while hot and immediately rub through wire sieve with a wooden discs; flooring on screen; drying. When drying the potato in the form of cooked pasta is almost ready to tubers are cleaned from the skin and then give them 2-3 hours to stand up to they were petrified. The tubers then passed through a meat grinder or top with a mesh of 3-4 mm, the plank on the sieve and dried. Potatoes blanched whole tubers, after cooling and cleaning cuts also kornerezkah thin circles or columns, prodavlivaya tubers by hand through a sieve with a strained crosswise strings (With a mesh 4X6 mm).
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