Most suitable for drying high-yielding varieties of table potatoes
(Lorch, Epron, Majestic, Smyslovsky, bark-Neva, Oktyabrenok,
Courier berlihingen, etc.) that have
tubers are large or medium-sized round or oblong correct form,
without build-up and not damaged by pests,
wireworm and other tubers must have thin skin, small
number of shallow eyes and the flesh white or yellowish.
Potatoes, going for a vegetable-drying industry, should
satisfy the requirements of GOST 6014-51.
When drying potatoes, blanched in sliced, technological
operations are performed in the following sequence:
sorted for quality;
calibration for small, medium and large;
treatment (in centrifuges or manually);
dochistka hand (keep the peeled potatoes in water, so it is not darkened);
cutting of large and medium potato noodles and small
rinsing in water;
blanching (within 3-5 minutes. in water or steam);
cooling in water;
flooring on screen (immediately after washing and cooling
When drying the potato grading and sizing of raw materials - the most important
operations to ensure that the finished 'product quality
and minimum costs of raw materials per ton of finished product.
The calibration of the potato produced by the calibration machine drum
type sotryasatelnyh wire sieves with mesh sizes for
tables, slides, or manually. Wash the potatoes in a washing machine fxistor drum type. In small enterprises potatoes are washed in tubs with
water (preferably with running). After washing potatoes centrifuge
or kornechistkah, in which raw materials downloaded periodically equal
portions. When peeling potatoes in a centrifuge must be submitted
continuous stream of water. Potatoes in a centrifuge can be cleaned only
calibrated by size. When cleaning in different-sized centrifuges
Potato waste will increase, and hence the expenditure
raw material per ton of finished product will also increase.
After peeling potatoes in centrifuges produce dochistku tubers
manually remove the remnants of the skin and eyes, and dark spots, etc.
At the same time keep the peeled potatoes in water, but no more than 2 hours.
Then the tubers are allowed to cut. Cut potatoes in kornerezkah as
columns or noodles as thick as 5-7 mm and a width of 3-5 mm and thin
circles. Hopper kornerezki must be loaded at all times
at half its capacity. Thanks to this machine's performance
increases and the amount of stuff - chips - is reduced. Sliced
potatoes were washed in cold water. In this case, washed starch
which must be periodically collected and dried. After cutting
and washing the potatoes are blanching, for which metal
mesh with potatoes immersed in boiling water. You can blanch it and
steam at a temperature not lower than 95 ° for 3-5 minutes, depending
the size of the bars and the temperature. During blanching
at 90 ° C and above destroys the enzymes, including tyrosinase.
Therefore, the blanched potatoes to darken. If the potatoes until
blanching was washed badly, starch,
located on the surface of the pieces, with blanching kleysterizuetsya,
and drying of the potato will be longer.
In addition, the appearance of the finished product will be unattractive.
Potatoes should blanch in small portions to water, after
immersion in her potatoes, quick (1-2 minutes) to boil.
It is best to blanch the potatoes in pots made of stainless steel,
aluminum or, finally, in wooden tubs, covered with bakelite
lacquer and fitted with stainless steel tubing. When
enjoyment of such pots in the water do not get metals - copper and iron,
that promote oxidation of vitamin C.
Blanching the potato steam produced in special Blancher
continuous or intermittent operation or in an autoclave under pressure.
When blanching potato water and steam must strive to
to potatoes quickly warmed to a temperature of 80 °. Interval
temperatures ranging from 30 to 55 ° is particularly dangerous, since such
temperature activity of oxidative enzymes is very high and
so potato to darken. Vitamin C is rapidly oxidized at the same time.
After blanching the potatoes immediately cooled in cold water
(Immersion in the same grid or running water from a hose) to
temperature no higher than 30 °.
Cooling potatoes only to 45-50 ° unacceptable, since such
potatoes are digested and dark. The latter facilitated by the following
iron and copper, falling into the potatoes from the water. These metals, as
and enzymes that act more vigorously at higher temperatures.
Then the potato plank on screens and dried in the dryer. Sieves
potatoes in the cabinet and rotary dryers put the bottom and then
gradually rearrange them up, ie, drying is carried out
parallel to the movement of warm air coming from the radiator.
Practiced as drying potatoes combined: first,
for forward flow, and then by a countercurrent. In this case, the sieve with
Blanched potatoes put on the bottom, and then through
20-30 minutes to rearrange the top of the apparatus, where
as the drying of the product is moved downwards. Products
discharged from that part of the apparatus, which is located closer
Drying of potato in xagrit: the first three steps are the same as
and dried potatoes sliced, and further:
boiling potatoes whole until tender form, avoiding cooking;
peeling potatoes while hot and immediately rub through
wire sieve with a wooden discs;
flooring on screen;
When drying the potato in the form of cooked pasta is almost ready to
tubers are cleaned from the skin and then give them 2-3 hours to stand up to
they were petrified. The tubers then passed through a meat grinder or
top with a mesh of 3-4 mm, the plank on the sieve and dried. Potatoes
blanched whole tubers, after cooling and cleaning cuts
also kornerezkah thin circles or columns, prodavlivaya
tubers by hand through a sieve with a strained crosswise strings
(With a mesh 4X6 mm).