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Low alcohol drinks

Low alcohol drinks All drinks in this group (brew home-brewed beer and honey) are the drinks fermentation. Fermentation process is usually referred to changes in the composition media containing carbohydrates and proteins of plant origin, arising as a result of development in these organisms. For the preparation of soft drinks of particular importance have alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid, accompanies the first the production of some beverages. Under the action of enzymes Yeast sugar contained in the original wort, undergo some very complex changes that lead ultimately to disintegration of the formation of carbon dioxide and alcohol. Of the yeast enzymes are important include: maltase, transforms the complex sugar maltose in two particles of glucose, and sucrose, which causes the splitting of another sugar sucrose into glucose and fructose. The resulting simple sugars (glyukza and fructose) once exposed to the enzyme zymase, the result of which actually is the breakdown of sugar with simultaneous accumulation of alcohol and carbon dioxide. Accumulation of the main fermentation products, along with some side (acids and esters) leads to a change in taste properties of the original wort. With the formation of lactic fermentation of lactic acid from sugar, caused by enzymes of lactic acid bacteria, leads to acidification of wort. Alcoholic fermentation is a considerable amount of carbon dioxide, reporting low alcohol drinks natural sodas. Fermentation process can occur due to development in the medium microbes that accidentally fall with the raw materials and from the air or by micro-organisms to be made in the form of beer and pressed baker's yeast and yeast net cultures. The latter method always guarantees high speed fermentation and high quality of the finished drink. Prior to the receipt of the wort to ferment the grain is subjected to malting, ie germination, followed by taking away Water (drying). When mashing with malt flour is carried out several operations, designed to ensure that the insoluble matter of grain perhaps better to translate into a soluble state and earn more than the rich in sugars and nitrogenous substances must, suitable for the development of yeast in it. Moderate enzyme activity at rest in its grain germination is replaced by high activity of enzymes germinating grain. Of the enzymes that hydrolyze carbohydrates quantitatively and qualitatively, first place belongs to amylase, whose action is manifested in a number of functions. Distinguish saccharifying, dekstriniruyuschuyu and thinning function of amylase. Saccharifying ability amylase explained by the presence in it, b-amylase (saharogenamilazy) is in essence an enzyme unsprouted grain determined mainly by saccharifying amylase. Under the action of a-amylase corn starch is converted into b-maltose. Dekstriniruyuschaya ability appears in the germinating seed and associated with the transition of starch mainly in the dextrin under the a-amylase. Under the action of a-amylase starch liquefaction precedes dekstrinirovaniyu. The resultant dextrins are further exposed b-amylase. The process of disintegration of starch in the end under the influence a and b amylases leads to the accumulation of maltose and dextrin in wort. In the production of alcoholic drinks saccharification of starch grain supplies is mainly at the expense contributed barley malt. In addition to amylase, an enormous role played by proteolytic malt enzymes that act on proteins. In the production of rye malt value decomposition of proteins is particularly high. Decay products in the so-called stage languor are amino acids. Their presence at while the accumulation of sugars (in the withering away seedling) leads to chemical interaction Sakharov with amino acids and production of so-called amino or melanoidins, causing flavoring and aromatic value of rye malt. The process of formation of these substances accelerated subsequent drying. In preparation kvas only barley malt has a value as a substance containing active enzymes. In the process languor amylase rye malt falls sharply and ready rye malt has it in low active state or even does not contain. By rye malt, according to the GRL NKPP 338, are presented The following requirements. By outward appearances rye malt should be sweet and sour the taste of rye bread, no foreign, bitter and burnt taste, specific flavor of rye bread, odorless mildew and rot; color - brownish-red or brown. Malt comes in the form of fine grinding, passing through a sieve № 24 (24 threads per 25 mm), or whole grains. In terms of quantitative standards: moisture content should noxtexceed 8% for malt grains and 10% for ground, water-soluble substances (Extract hoods) must not be less than 60% total extract (Extract saccharification) of at least 70% on dry substance malt. Rye malt acidity, expressed as ml of normal alkali in 100 g of extract should noxtexceed 60. The color is determined by comparing the malt with a solution of iodine. Malt not must be lighter than 0,1 N iodine solution in an amount of 35 ml per 100 g of extract. The presence of impurities (sand, shells, etc.) allowed: for the crushed malt is not more than 0,2%, and for malt in whole grains is not more than 1%. Malt humidity above 10% (ground) or above 8% (For not broken), and containing less than 60% of the extract hood or at least 70% of the extract is saccharification above standard. Malt, unsatisfying requirements outward appearances, is also considered nonstandard.
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