Low alcohol drinks
Low alcohol drinks
All drinks in this group (brew home-brewed beer and honey) are the drinks
fermentation. Fermentation process is usually referred to changes in the composition
media containing carbohydrates and proteins of plant origin,
arising as a result of development in these organisms.
For the preparation of soft drinks of particular importance
have alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid, accompanies the first
the production of some beverages. Under the action of enzymes
Yeast sugar contained in the original wort, undergo
some very complex changes that lead ultimately to
disintegration of the formation of carbon dioxide and alcohol.
Of the yeast enzymes are important include: maltase,
transforms the complex sugar maltose in two particles of glucose,
and sucrose, which causes the splitting of another sugar sucrose
into glucose and fructose. The resulting simple sugars (glyukza
and fructose) once exposed to the enzyme zymase,
the result of which actually is the breakdown of sugar with
simultaneous accumulation of alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Accumulation of the main fermentation products, along with some
side (acids and esters) leads to a change in taste
properties of the original wort.
With the formation of lactic fermentation of lactic acid from
sugar, caused by enzymes of lactic acid bacteria, leads
to acidification of wort.
Alcoholic fermentation is a considerable amount of carbon dioxide,
reporting low alcohol drinks natural sodas.
Fermentation process can occur due to development in the medium
microbes that accidentally fall with the raw materials and from the air
or by micro-organisms to be made in the form of beer and
pressed baker's yeast and yeast net
The latter method always guarantees high speed
fermentation and high quality of the finished drink.
Prior to the receipt of the wort to ferment the grain is subjected to
malting, ie germination, followed by taking away
When mashing with malt flour is carried out several operations,
designed to ensure that the insoluble matter of grain
perhaps better to translate into a soluble state and
earn more than the rich in sugars and nitrogenous
substances must, suitable for the development of yeast in it.
Moderate enzyme activity at rest in its grain
germination is replaced by high activity of enzymes
germinating grain. Of the enzymes that hydrolyze carbohydrates
quantitatively and qualitatively, first place belongs to
amylase, whose action is manifested in a number of functions.
Distinguish saccharifying, dekstriniruyuschuyu and thinning
function of amylase. Saccharifying ability amylase
explained by the presence in it, b-amylase (saharogenamilazy)
is in essence an enzyme unsprouted grain
determined mainly by saccharifying amylase.
Under the action of a-amylase corn starch is converted into
b-maltose. Dekstriniruyuschaya ability appears
in the germinating seed and associated with the transition of starch
mainly in the dextrin under the a-amylase.
Under the action of a-amylase starch liquefaction precedes
dekstrinirovaniyu. The resultant dextrins are
further exposed b-amylase.
The process of disintegration of starch in the end under the influence
a and b amylases leads to the accumulation of maltose and dextrin
in wort. In the production of alcoholic drinks
saccharification of starch grain supplies is mainly
at the expense contributed barley malt.
In addition to amylase, an enormous role played by proteolytic
malt enzymes that act on proteins. In the production of
rye malt value decomposition of proteins is particularly high.
Decay products in the so-called stage
languor are amino acids. Their presence at
while the accumulation of sugars (in the withering away
seedling) leads to chemical interaction Sakharov
with amino acids and production of so-called amino
or melanoidins, causing flavoring and aromatic
value of rye malt. The process of formation of these substances
accelerated subsequent drying.
In preparation kvas only barley malt has a value
as a substance containing active enzymes. In the process
languor amylase rye malt falls sharply
and ready rye malt has it in low active state
or even does not contain.
By rye malt, according to the GRL NKPP 338, are presented
The following requirements.
By outward appearances rye malt should be sweet and sour
the taste of rye bread, no foreign, bitter and burnt
taste, specific flavor of rye bread, odorless
mildew and rot; color - brownish-red or brown. Malt
comes in the form of fine grinding, passing through a sieve
№ 24 (24 threads per 25 mm), or whole grains.
In terms of quantitative standards: moisture content should noxtexceed 8% for
malt grains and 10% for ground, water-soluble substances
(Extract hoods) must not be less than 60% total extract
(Extract saccharification) of at least 70% on dry
Rye malt acidity, expressed as ml of normal alkali
in 100 g of extract should noxtexceed 60.
The color is determined by comparing the malt with a solution of iodine. Malt not
must be lighter than 0,1 N iodine solution in an amount of 35 ml
per 100 g of extract.
The presence of impurities (sand, shells, etc.)
allowed: for the crushed malt is not more than 0,2%, and for
malt in whole grains is not more than 1%.
Malt humidity above 10% (ground) or above 8%
(For not broken), and containing less than 60% of the extract
hood or at least 70% of the extract is saccharification
above standard. Malt, unsatisfying requirements
outward appearances, is also considered nonstandard.