for the production of halva
1.1 Preparation of sesame (tahini) massSesame mass manufacture of peeled and roasted sesame kernels by rubbing them on the mill Pastavy, farmers, roller or other mills. To obtain the mass can be used sesame sesame three types: white, yellow-brown, black.
1.1.1 Preparation of seeds for obrushivaniyuBefore obrushivaniem sesame seeds should be cleaned of dust, small seeds and other impurities in grain separators, after which they may be washed in the washing machine. Also, sesame seeds can be cleaned from dust and impurities only by washing them in the washing machine. To ensure the separation membrane from the nucleus of sesame seeds are soaked. Depending on the variety, degree of swelling of membranes for aging sesame seeds need different time. Sesame seeds are soaked in water at a temperature of a mixture of 35 ± 3? S. Duration of soaking the seeds for easily falls from 20 to 60 minutes for hard falls - up to 2 hours or more. The seeds are soaked in round or rectangular cement, iron or wooden vats (tanks) with a capacity of 100-1000 liters. Height tanks should provide comfortable doing their cleaning and zamyvki. Since sesame seed soaking with increases in volume, the Lock vat or tank filled with sesame seeds 2 / 3 of volume. Sesame seeds pour water temperature of 40-50 ° C depending on the capacity of a obrushivaniyu: easily falls at 40 ? C, it is hard falls - up to 50? C. The water level in lock tanks should be somewhat higher than the sesame seed. Readiness for sesame obrushivaniya set to ease separation membrane from the nucleus when grinding the seeds between your fingers. At the end of soaking water drained through the discharge pipe (pipe) with xagrid installed at the bottom of the tank (vat). Moisture content of seeds after soaking - 38-40%. In the thread-mechanized production receiving sesame mass continuous process of soaking sesame seeds carried by the locking station. Soaked seeds with water after unloading opening act in express unit from which the excess water is removed in 10-15 minutes, and seeds with moisture content 38-44% pitayusche-dryer auger served in rushilnuyu car.
1.1.2 Obrushivanie sesame (separation of core from the shell)Obrushivanie soaked sesame seeds can be carried out on machines rushilnyh both continuous and intermittent operation. Machine batch (like pastilosbivalnoy) consists of a body with a hinged lid, a shaft with blades. Housing has a lower unloading door. Rotational speed of blades 340-360 rpm, a one-time download sesame 70-80 kg, the duration obrushivaniya - 10-20 minutes depending on the quality of semen. In periodic obrushivanii process is as follows: in a car loaded half of sesame to be loaded include the engine, then poured the rest of the sesame seeds. End of obrushivaniya determined by the appearance of mass and the number of paddy seeds. Continuous process obrushivaniya carried out on the car of Research Institute of the confectionery industry. Soaked sesame seeds coming into the machine continuously at a speed of rotation of feed screw 17 rpm. Rotational speed of main shaft with blades of 800 rpm, a step between the rows of blades 100 mm. Quality obrushivaniya sesame characterized by the number nedorusha: To easily falls sesame seeds - up to 2% for hard falls - up to 3%. The resulting rushanka sent for further processing to separate the kernels from the shell. Branch
1.1.3 kernel from the shellFor the separation of core from the shell is recommended that you rushanku wash water in the washing machine, and then finally separate envelope in solomurnoy car. At the same time in the washing machine is removed about 2 / 3 of the shell, contained in rushanke. When the machine it serves up to 70 liters of water per minute. For the final separation of the shell rushanku after washing machine serves to process 17-19% sodium chloride solution (density 1120-1150 kg/m3). Solomurirovaniya process based on the difference in the density of the shell and sesame kernels (the density of the shell about 1500 kg/m3, 1070 kg/m3 core); rushanki immersed in a bath of brine core to the surface of the solution and settles to the bottom shell. The temperature of saline in the bath 18-22 solomurnoy? S. The kernel of the coins to be separated from the shell without pre-washing in the washing machine rushanki, but only with the direct solomurirovanii it. Solomurirovaniya process can be performed manually and in the maquila sector mechanized means. In manual mode the core and shell rushanki sesame seed share in round or rectangular wooden or iron vats (tanks) with a sufficiently large area to accelerate the deposition of the shell. Salt solution was prepared in a separate tank or solerastvoritele. Processing rushanki in saline to produce two consecutive times in two solomurnyh vats. Kernels are transshipped from one vat to another using a sieve. In a vat of saline load rushanku well stirred it into the top layer of the solution and leave for some time for settling of the shell. Length of stay nuclei in saline with a double treatment - 15-18 minutes, a layer of rushanki - about 5 mm. The extent of pollution in a vat of saline solution change. Net core dumped through sieve salt solution was allowed to drain and the core is washed with water. With the mechanized method of separating the kernel from the shell is produced in solormurnoy machine where the brine has a circular layout. From solerastvoritelya brine centrifugal pump through a perforated pipe located in the boot parts, machines, continuously fed into the machine frame, where gravity, along with pop-up kernels is poured through lower portion of the board in express unit from which pours through the holes in extruded screens, again falling into solerastvoritel . The surface of separation in solomurnoy car - 2,75 m2 (1100 x 2500 mm). Submission of saline in the body of the car 20-30 l / min, the density of brine - 1120-1150 kg / m 3 (17-19% - solution), temperature 18-22? S. Rushanki layer on the surface of the salt solution of about 5 mm at the start and about 2 mm at the end of the separating surface. Loading rushanki in solomurnuyu machine is carried out continuously by means of the screw. For unloading clean nuclei solomurnoy machine installed to pump the device, which houses the screw with the press cone (95 rpm).
1.1.4 Rinse sesame kernels of saltNucleus washed in tanks or baths of different capacity (100-300 liters) of tap water or with multiple (3-4), change the water, the end of the process of washing the organoleptically determined (by the absence of a salty taste). Kernels were washed with small portions - at 60-80 kg. The duration of flushing - about 20 minutes. When thread-mechanized production kernels are washed in the washing machine of continuous action. Water surface of 1300x760 mm. To remove wash water and the supernatant of light particles in the washing machine is mounted filter, which is a vertical cylindrical tank (diameter 450 mm), inside which there are two pull-out mesh pocket. Nucleus of the outlet screw to pump the device solomurnoy machine with a strong jet of water directed to the reception, and then washing of the body washer. The duration of the cleaning process - 5-6 minutes. Washed sesame core auger serves to unload the unit. Quantity of discharge water - about 50 liters per minute. Washed nuclei should not be salty. The salt content in sesame weight must noxtexceed 0.8%, respectively, in halva - no more than 0,5%.
1.1.5 CentrifugationThe purpose of centrifugation - removal of surface moisture nucleus after washing it with water. Centrifuge is used to periodically force the vertical centrifuge with a top or bottom discharge, with a capacity of 80-200 liters. The inner drum perforated with a speed 800-1000 rpm. The duration of centrifugation for 2-3 minutes, the simultaneous loading centrifuges - 60-70 kg microfuge kernel moisture content did noxtexceed 30%. In the absence of centrifugal water with nuclei removed by pumping in mesh boxes ..
1.1.6 Thermal treatment of kernels sesame seeds (drying and roasting)Heat treatment of oily kernels of conduct in order to remove moisture and make the cores of the characteristic pleasant taste, aroma and color. As a result of heat treatment of the nucleus and become fragile, needed for better grinding them in shredded mass. Heat-treated sesame kernels conducted in two ways: by drying the kernels to a moisture content 10-14%, and then frying them to a final moisture content 0,9-1,3% or without pre-drying with a combination of both processes in a thermal plant. Sesame kernels are dried in a drying drum continuous countercurrent of hot air. In the absence of a drum drier kernels dried in dryers other structures with circulating heated air. The temperature of air entering the drum 110-120 ? C, the drying of about 15 minutes. Sesame kernels entering the dryer, have a moisture content 28-30%. Roasting of sesame kernels produce in open braziers intermittent steam heated steam at a pressure of 5.4 kgf/cm2. Brazier has a mechanical scraper agitator mounted on a vertical axis, and to do 25-40 rpm. The temperature of sesame kernel in the end of roasting 115-120? S. In the maquila sector to undertake the process of drying and roasting sesame kernels in the same heat setting is used dryer VIS-42-DC (with optional air heater). Dryer VIS-42-DK is a shaft dryer with rotating horizontal shelves. It is designed for drying and roasting of bulk materials. In the drier material on the shelves is moving downward, and the hot air (or gas-air mixture), the fan is directed upwards. Dryer is loaded with a special feeding devices. The value of load is determined by the height of the layer of material on the shelves. The drying time is adjusted depending on the initial product moisture and temperature of the heated air entering the dryer. The temperature of air or gas-air mixture entering the drying chamber, 160-165? S.
1.1.7 Cooling and otveivanieAfter roasting sesame kernels should be quickly cooled to 50 ° C to prevent the deterioration under prolonged exposure to high temperatures. Nucleus cooled in metal trays or in boxes with a double bottom (inner bottom mesh or perforated), which is served cold air, as well as the cooling drums, arranged on the principle of the drying drum, and applying them in cold air or other cooling devices. Cooling of roasted kernels can also be made at pnevmotransportiro Vania-roasted kernels in the system pnevmopodachi by intensive blowing of air. To clean the roasted and cooled sesame kernels stuck on pieces of kernels, the possible remains of a shell or substandard paddy seeds and sesame additional cooling core winnow using conventional winnowing with vibrating sieves or sieve sifter. Sesame core temperature of 25-30 ? C, after cooling and otveivaniya comes to grinding.
1.1.8 Grinding roasted kernels (receiving sesame mass)Toasted sesame kernels milled into a mass of uniform consistency at the mill mills (put, farmers) or other mills. To obtain a homogeneous, finely grated mass necessary to sesame kernel has been well-browned and had a moisture content noxtexceeding 1,3%. Lack of roasting the nucleus makes it difficult to grind, and the resulting cash has a thick consistency. Before grinding the kernel is passed through the magnets to retain the possible metallic impurities. The temperature of pulverized mass at the exit of grinding equipment should noxtexceed 70 ? C. . Crushing sesame characterized by mass balance of a silk sieve number 23, which must be from 8 to 15% with respect to skim substance sample. Note: To determine the degree of grinding weighed 10 grams grated mass (sesame or other) with an accuracy of up to 0,005, the weighed portion was treated several times with chloroform to 25 ml, which, after mixing with the hitch decantation decanted through a weighted silk sieve number 23. Sieve can be solderless of the two shells are inserted into one another, and weigh only a silk cloth. (Instead, you can use chloroform and other solvents: petroleum or ethyl ether, trichlorethylene). With the latter portions of chloroform weighed quantitatively transferred to a sieve and it once again washed with solvent. Sieve residue after drying in a cabinet sieved with a soft brush until the white paper will not be a noticeable amount of particles weighed on an analytical balance with an accuracy of up to 0,001 grams and expressed as a percentage of the skim substance sample, producing a calculation using the formula:
X = m: (10 - n) • 100 (%) where:
X - crushing;
m - fat tire sample on a sieve;
n - the amount of fat in 10 grams of sample, depending on its content.
For example: When fat mass - 58% in 10 g weighed portion of it will be - 5.8, the The balance of fat-free sample on sieve number 23 was 0.3550, the then crushing will be: X = 0.3550: (10 - 5,8) • 100 = 8.45% Before each following definition of silk cloth is washed in warm water, then in a solvent and dried at a temperature of 90-100 ° C. Ready sesame mass should be fine grinding, cream color, not to have dark blotches, the taste must be peculiar taste of roasted sesame kernels. Humidity sesame mass 0,9 - 1,3%, fat content 55-62%. Mass stored in collections with a mixer at a temperature of 40-50 ° C.