for the production of halva
1.2 Preparation of subsolar massSunflower mass manufacture of peeled husks and roasted sunflower kernels by rubbing them. It is recommended to use large and medium-sized sunflower seeds, with a mass of 1000 no less than 1965
1.2.1 Preparation of seeds for obrushivaniyuBefore obrushivaniem sunflower seeds should be cleaned of dust and impurities by winnowing or separators, such as air-Reshetnev type. After cleaning the seeds calibrate the size of 2-3 sorts as the separator type PFP or two or three Reshetnev sieve with holes 4, 7, 10 mm. Seeds - Outsiftings 4 and 4.5 mm, the valley used in the production of halva.
1.2.2 Obrushivanie and otveivanieFor obrushivaniya sunflower seeds are used Towpath rushku MPH. It consists of a hopper with a feed roller, drum, on which the 16 pests and cast-iron deck. Drum rotational speed 500-630 rpm. Calibrated large and small sunflower seeds bombarded separately at different rushkah or one if you adjust the gap before obrushivaniem each class. Pearled seed (rushanka) comes to an eternal machine to separate the kernels from the paddy seeds nedorusha, chopped straw, husk and oil dust (fasciculi). Aspiration semenoveechnaya machine M2C-50, designed to sort rushanki on sieves sieving followed by separation of kernel and husk of their aerodynamic properties, typically installed directly under the breaking machine, from which rushanka continuously fed by gravity. M2C-50 shares rushanku 7 fractions, of which paddy seed (tselyak) is directed to re-obrushivanie, oil dust (the fine fraction - fasciculi) - a departure that is transmitted to the oil mills. The remaining fraction fed to further processing, in order to clean the remnants of husk. Cleaning the nucleus of the husk can be made by treating it in running water (wet method) or by re-obrushivaniya after heat treatment, followed by grinding and sieving (dry method).
1.2.3 Purification of sunflower kernels from the husk "wet" methodRinse sunflower kernels under running water additionally frees them from the remnants of husk, paddy seed impurities. Washing the nuclei carried in tanks or various devices, developed by the enterprises themselves. When washing the tank kernel loaded on? - 2 / 3 of its volume. Tank capacity is 100 kg kernels of about 300-350 liters. Water flow rate 100-150 l / h. The duration of washing for 5-7 minutes. Water during the washing of nuclei descend through a hole in a tank top. In its lower part has a hole to release the water after washing. In the process of cleaning the core periodically stirred, resulting in husk and paddy seeds float to the surface, after which they were removed by a scoop net. Net core settle to the bottom. Nucleus also washed in mesh basket submerged in a tank with running water. After stirring the kernels in water, pop (paddy kernels and shells) are removed mesh scoop, and scoured the nucleus in the basket up manually or telpher and after draining the water transfer to the centrifuge for a more complete removal of surface moisture. With mechanized cleaning of the various machines and devices the process duration of 2 to b minutes. If you can not be cleaned in running tap water, nuclei were washed multiple alternation of water, 3-4 times, then washed and transferred to the nucleus in a centrifuge. Duration of nuclear centrifuge for 2-3 minutes, humidity them after centrifugation, no more than 25%.
1.2.4 Purification of sunflower kernels from the husk "dry"Nucleus, emerging from semenoveechnoy machine goes to roasting. After roasting and cooling of the core if necessary, subjected to repeated obrushivaniyu on Towpath semenorushke MRI, which has fewer pests (10), working with a smaller number of revolutions (about 500). Removal of the husk husked roasted kernels produced by a fan. Further, the kernel is ground to double roller machines in small grains, which is then eliminated in shakers for more complete separation of husk.
1.2.5 Thermal processing of sunflower kernels (drying and roasting)Heat treatment of sunflower kernels from the husk of untreated "wet" method, carried out in two stages: drying the kernels to a moisture content of 12-15%, roasting them to a final moisture content 1,0-1,3%. After roasting sunflower kernels have the taste and aroma of roasted kernels, and have a color from light gray to pale yellow. Pre-drying of sunflower kernels is carried out in kilns of different designs with circulating hot air (under optimal conditions, drying of the kernel are in a suspended state), not more than 40 minutes. Then the kernel is roasted in a roasting pan with flame or steam heated at a pressure of heating steam 5.4 kgf/cm2. Heat treatment of sunflower kernels, husks from untreated "wet" method can be performed without preliminary drying liter, direct fire or steam at a pressure fryer pair 4g-5 kgf/cm2 and stirring. The duration of the process should noxtexceed 1.5 hours. Heat treatment of nuclei dry heat treatment duration of 30-40 minutes. Temperature of the nuclei at the end of roasting 110-120 ° C, humidity roasted kernels 1,0-1,3%. For drying and roasting sunflower kernels can be used dryer VIS-42-DK.
1.2.6 Cooling and otveivanieAfter roasting sunflower kernels, as well as sesame, should be quickly cooled to 50 ° C to prevent the deterioration under prolonged exposure to high temperatures. Roasted sunflower kernels cooled and winnow the same way as sesame (see Section 1.1.7). Except as specified in section 1.1.7 for the cooling of sunflower kernels apply special vertical coolers collapsible design, consisting of 5 boxes with trays, hopper from the frame and installed separately dust fan with a diffuser. Sunflower kernels are moving in a cooler from the top down. Cooling air is fed in the opposite direction. When blowing air nuclei is partially removed husks. The temperature of chilled cores ~ 30 ° C.
1.2.7 Grinding roasted sunflower kernels (getting shredded mass)Grinding of roasted sunflower kernels (or grits, with a "dry" method of cleaning the kernels from the husk) is made on the mill mills (put, farmers), roller or other. If necessary, facilitate the work of grinding equipment for grinding can be added to sunflower oil in an amount noxtexceeding 2% by weight of sunflower. Ready sunflower mass should have a temperature noxtexceeding 70 ° C, humidity of 1-1,3%, fat content 55-62%, degree of comminution of 8 to 15% of the balance of fat-free sample a silk sieve № 29. For the maximum exemption from sunflower husk mass was passed through wiping the car with a hole diameter sieves: the first one - 1,5 mm, the second - 0,8 mm. The residual amount of sunflower husks in bulk shall noxtexceed 1,4%. Sunflower mass should be fine grinding, grayish-green color, flavor should match the taste of roasted sunflower kernels. Sunflower mass stored in the collection with a mixer at a temperature of 40-50 ° C.
1.2.8 Preparation of subsolar mass of pre-roasted seedsCleaned of impurities sunflower seeds are roasted to a moisture content 1,3-1,6% after which they were cooled and descend on Towpath rushkah. Before obrushivaniem seeds can be calibrated by the size and puts separately. The resulting rushanka winnow from the husks and separated into fractions on semenoveechnoy car. Paddy seeds are returned for re-obrushivanie, and the kernel and Muchka if necessary, act on additional cleaning of the husk by grinding nibs on rollers and sieving through a vibrating screen. The resulting grit is ground in the grated mass at the mill, a farmer or other rolling mills. In case of need, for better cleaning of the mass of shredded husks, it passes through wiping the machine.
1.2.9 Calculation of the output of grated mass of sesame and sunflower seedsCalculation of output grated mass of sesame and sunflower seeds as follows. Total losses of dry matter calculated using the formula:
P = A + B +? B + T (%) where:
P - total loss of dry matter,%
A - number of shells,%
B - amount of trash,%
B - number of oil-bearing impurities,%
T-existing standard of technological losses get shredded mass.
The calculation of the mass is crushed out on the dry substance.
Example of calculating yield sesame mass of I ton of sesame seeds with the following indicators: mass fraction of moisture - 6% content of the shell - 8% contents of trash - 2%: content of oilseed impurity - 0,5% Process losses - 10% In 1 t sesame for its moisture 6% contained 940 kg of dry matter. Estimated loss of dry matter are P = 8% + 2% + 0.5% + 10% = 20.25% 100% - 20.25% = 79.75%, ie in 1 ton of sesame in the light of loss of dry matter: (940 kg • 79.75%): 100 = 749.6 kg a shredded mass of moisture 1% get: X = (749,6 • 100): 99 = 757.1 kg Consequently, from 1 ton of raw sesame seed moisture content of 6% yield of sesame mass moisture of 1% is 757.1 kg, A = 8%, B = 2%, B = 0.5%.