for the production of halva
1.3 Preparation of peanut and nut massPeanut and nut mass prepared from peeled roasted kernels, peanuts by rubbing them. Peanuts in the outer shell is cleaned of dust and impurities. With the help of sieves separate the heavy impurities, and dust and light particles are carried by air in the cyclone. For obrushivaniya peanut (branch kernel from the shell) use special rushku (arahisoluschilku), which works on the principle of Towpath rushek and consisting of the hopper and two rotating in one direction rollers with studs. Diameter rollers - 550 mm, length - 600 mm. Rotational speed of rolls: Upper - 150, Lower 6,5-10 rpm. The gap between the rollers is adjustable. Collapse of peanut kernels with shells fall on the sieve, shells and dust, winnow fan. Nucleus, passing through the upper sieve with a hole diameter of 8 mm and the bottom with a hole diameter of 5 mm received in the receiving collector. Peanuts can also act on businesses already shelled. In this case the kernels are usually packed in bags? 50 kg. Nucleus of the bags are sorted and cleaned of impurities in the separator or sorter.
1.3.1 Treatment of peanut kernels table saltPeanut has a specific bean and bitter aftertaste, which deteriorates the taste of pastry, the purpose of exemption from this taste peanut kernels were recommended to treat common salt, one of the two existing methods. The first way. Peanut kernels were moistened with a solution containing 4.6% sodium chloride, which is added in an amount of 6-9% by weight of peanuts. Treatment is carried out in rotating drums gradually dampening peanut brine temperature of 35-45 ° C for 20 minutes. Peanuts quickly absorbs the solution, slightly moisten (up to 9-10%). Upon completion of processing of peanuts roasted in the usual way. Salt, remaining in bulk quantities 0,2-0,4% improves the taste of peanuts. The second method. Peanut kernels were soaked in 3% - dimensional solution of salt temperature 40-45 ° C for 20 min. At the end of soaking the kernel is centrifuged, dried and roasted. During this processing of peanuts removed much of the substances that give an unpleasant taste of peanut kernels due to their partial transition to a solution of salt and partial distillation with steam heat treatment after soaking. The acquired taste of salt nuclei also improves taste of the peanut mass. Peanut kernels were soaked in conventional rail or timber of lock tanks (vats): one volume of peanut kernels take about two volumes of salt solution in two or three times you use it. Soaking process can be performed in a continuous fashion trenches with horizontal auger, and the transfer of nuclei to centrifugation to an inclined auger. Upon completion of processing of peanut kernels contain about 20% moisture. Table salt may also be administered in peanut halva with broth soap root for Interrupting caramel mass in an amount of about 0.15% by weight of caramel.
1.3.2 Heat treatment of peanut kernels (drying and roasting)Peanut kernels were roasted at a temperature of 145-150 ° C until the moisture content of roasted kernels 1-1,3%. Peanut kernels after the treatment of common salt with a moisture content of no more than 10% can be browned in a Dutch oven with steam heating and mechanical stirring without prior drying. The duration of the roasting process in a roasting pan 1,5-2 hours, the temperature of cores 110-120 ° C, humidity - 1,0-1,3%. Peanut kernel moisture content of 19-20% after saline treatment were dried in a tumble dryer and drying other structures with circulating heated air to a moisture content of 10-15%. In the drying installation kernels should be no more than 40 minutes. The degree of roasting peanuts kernels has xagreat influence on their taste. Roasting is carried out in open braziers steam at a pressure of 5.4 kg/cm2 steam. Lump Loading broiler to 150 kg of cores. In line production for drying and roasting the kernels of peanuts used dryer VIS-2. The temperature of air entering the drying chamber 145-150 ° C.
1.3.3 Cooling and otveivanieCooling and otveivanie roasted peanut kernels produce as well as sesame kernels (see p.1.1.7 "Cooling and otveivanie" in Section 1.1 Preparation of sesame mass). To clean the roasted peanut kernels from the film to pass through winnowing by which the shell and winnow deposited in the cyclone.
1.3.4 Grinding roasted peanut kernelsGrinding roasted peanut kernels is similar to the process for sesame and sunflower kernels (sm.p.1.1.8 "Grinding roasted kernels in Section 1.1," Preparation sesame mass "). Crushing the peanut mass characterized by balance and 4% for a silk sieve № 23 in relation to skim substance sample. Peanut mass must be fine-ground flour, cream color, not to have a large number of dark inclusions, the taste must comply taste of peanut kernels. Peanut weight should be stored in collections with a mixer line temperature 40-50 ° C.
1.3.5. Calculation of the output mass of raw peanut kernels peanutThe calculation is as follows
P = B + 1 / 2 B + T%, where: B - Foreign material B - Oil impurity T - the current standard of technological losses,%. Exit grated mass is determined in relation to dry matter of raw materials Example of calculating yield of peanut mass:
Moisture content of peanut kernels - 6.0% Foreign material - 0,5% Olives impurity. - 1,0% Process losses - 5.6% In the 1 ton of peanuts when its moisture content 6,0% contained 940 kg of dry matter P = 0.5% + 0.5% + 5.6% = 6.6% 100% - 6.6% = 93.4% ie from 1 ton of peanuts get shredded mass (in solids) (940 • 93,4): 100 = 877.96 kg a shredded mass with humidity 1.0% (877,96 • 100): 99 = 886.83 kg Consequently, from 1 ton of raw peanuts with a moisture content of 6%, the contents of trash 0,5% and oil impurity I% yield grated mass of the W 886.8 kg.